What is industrial Automation
Industrial Automation is often a technique in which we make hand over human control to machines. In industrial automation machines are programmed to accomplish the tasks which individuals accustomed to achieve. Why it is done? Because of its advantages:
Through Industrial automation we are able to do mass production with less manpower
Quality with the strategy is increased
Safety of individual & products are increased
More accurate process control
Since human intervention is less so reliability with the system is higher
Systems operate is low power, more electronic control so equipment life's higher
Changes in process logic becomes easier since logics are changed mostly through software
Principal Industrial Automation MNCs
L & T ALSTOM
Siemens Fuji Electric
Allen Bradley Toshiba
Messung TATA Honeywell
Asia Automation Delta
How industrial automation control system Evolved?
Initially automation was achieved through manual control, operators used to control the task at every step. Human intervention was there at every step. Drawbacks were poor output, errors involved in human involvement affected compromised safety, wastage of raw material, and accuracy of human action.
Then came Pneumatic Control: Industrial automation within this era was achieved through invention of pneumatic controllers noisy . 1920s. Automation was achieved by controlling air to pneumatic valves, which experts claim were actually switched on/off by relays and switches. They were very bulky and changing of the logic was very complex procedure since lots of rework was necessary to accomplish alternation in logic. So time delivered to complete task changes was very high
Hard wired logic control: contactors, relays (for switching), timers and counters (for timing and counting) were utilised for achieving desired industrial automation. But these systems also resulted into bulky panels. A lot of wiring was involved so time taken to complete task was higher. Defect investigation & troubleshooting was complex. see this here
using Logic Gates: In early 60s electronics dominated the procedure, electronic logic gates were utilised for achieving logical operations. they replaced switching devices like relays and contactors inside control circuits. Electronic times & counters replaced mechanical timers & counters. Due to using electronics space and energy requirements reduced, maintenance requirement reduced & systems were more reliable.