Data structures are specialised methods for arranging and storing data in computers so that actions on the stored data can be carried out more quickly. The use of data structures is widespread and varied in the domains of computer science and software engineering.
Nearly all software systems and programmes that have been created involve data structures. Data structures also fall under the umbrella of computer science and software engineering basics. When it comes to interview questions for software engineering, it is a crucial subject. So, as developers, we need to be well-versed on data structures.
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Types of data structure
An array is a fixed-size structure that can house objects of the same data type. It may be a string, a floating-point number, an array of strings, an array of arrays, or even an array of arrays (such as 2-dimensional arrays). Because arrays are indexed, random access is possible.
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A sequential structure called a linked list is made up of a series of elements in linear order that are connected to one another. As a result, sequential access to data is required; random access is not an option. A straightforward and adaptable representation of dynamic sets is offered by linked lists.
A stack is a LIFO (Last In First Out) structure that is frequently used in many computer languages. The element placed last can be accessed first. Because it resembles a stack of plates in the real world, this structure is called "stack."
A queue is a First In First Out (FIFO) structure, which is frequently used in many programming languages and refers to the idea that the element placed first can be accessed first. Because of how much it resembles a line of people waiting to do something in the real world, this structure is called a "queue."
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A data structure called a hash table stores values that each have a key associated with them. Furthermore, if we know the key connected to the value, it facilitates lookup effectively. Because of this, regardless of the volume of data, it is incredibly effective at inputting and searching.
A tree is a hierarchical structure where information is arranged in levels and connected. In contrast to a linked list, which links elements in a linear fashion, this structure does not.
Over the years, several tree kinds have been created to suit various purposes and adhere to various restrictions. Binary search trees, B trees, treaps, red-black trees, splay trees, AVL trees, and n-ary trees are a few examples.
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